Udruženje pčelara - pčelarstvo Maradik

mr Naum, Dobrila, Dipl.ing.stočarstva Vladimir, Ignjat i Dipl.socijalni radnik Olivera Bandžov

LIČNA ISKUSTVA U SUZBIJANJU VARROE U LR KOŠNICI    (Tehnološko – biološko – hemiska metoda)
 (Referat sa međunarodnog simpozijuma SPLIT/84)
          Kada sam rešio da prijavlm referat na III Međunarodni Simpozij o Varroi, pošao sam od toga da se jedno dvadesetgodišnje uspešno pčelarenje LR košnicom ne začauri, nego da ta moja skromna saznanja prenesem na druge i da eventualno pomognem pčelalma koji takođe imaju velike probleme sa Varroom.
Sanitetski major         Službeni beđ Simpozijuma    Radno predsedništvo jedne          Dr Rutner Završna
  Naum Bandžov                                                                           sesije                                                          reč
          Velika želja bi mi bila ako ovo moje izlaganje ostavi nekakav trag i da se eventualno od njega izvuće odredjena korist, i još nesto, da pcelarima u buducem njihovom radu nesto i znaci. Ono što ja mogu sada korisno da vam isnesem, to je jedan moj eksperimenat koji sam uradio prošle godine, a zasniva se na naučnoj osnovi i pokazao je odlične rezu1tate u ovoj godini. I još nešto, kao far­maceut, da lznesem moje gledanje na lekove koji se korlste protiv Varroe.
          To moje 20 godišnje uspešno pčelarenje je rezultat onoga što sam mogao do sada da saznam, pročitam, utvrdim, iskusim i unesem u moju pčearsku praksu. U narednom periodu kao rukovodilac Vojnog pčelinjaka imaću mnogo više mogucnosti i vremena da još više izučavam, isprobavam i dokazujem odredjena naučna saznanja i iz tog razloga ovom prilikom nudlm saradnju sa svim naučnim institutima i fakultetima u Jugoslaviji koji se na odredjen način bave pčelarstvom u cilju obostrane koritsti.
         Ovaj naučno praktični eksperiment, koji sam uradio sa dve moje kosnice, za koje mislim da ću ga uvesti kao sistem pcelarenja uz Varrou, je rezultat razgovora sa Dr. Jovanom Kulinčevićem, koji mi je rekao da se kineski pčelari isecanjem poslednjeg legla uspesno se bore sa Varrooa. Ja Sam ovo nešto modificirao, prilagodio za LR kosnicu i sada mogu slobodno reći,kada se završila pčelarska godina da je eksperiment u potpunosti uspeo.
             Sl. 1                                     Izgled Varroe                      Ulazak Varroe u ćeliju        Napad na larvu
     Napad na lutku                Varroa pre ulaska u traheju     Ulazak u traheju                    Sl. 8 Defekne pčele
        Dakle, iz te dve košnice da ih nazovemo MATORKE, koje su zavrsile pčelar­aku godinu 17.08.1983 god. na 3 nastavaka, izvadio sam svo zatvoreno leglo i leglo pre zatvaranja sa nešto pčela bez matice, u posebnu košnicu – IZOLATOR koji se sastojao od jednog posebnog LR nastavka na posebnoj podnjaći sa poklopnom daskom i krovom kako bi za petnaesetak do dvadeset dana izašle sve mlade pčele. Znači u te dve MATORKE ostalo je u svakoj po 19 ramova, od čega 2 su bila sa jajima i otvorenim leglom gde Varroa još nije ušla i 17 ramova sa nešto meda, polenovog praha i praznih ramova gde će mlada julska matica nesmetano da nastavi sa nošenjem jaja. (Da napomenem, ja menjam matice jula meaeca.) Istog dana 17 avgusta 83 god. pred veće t.j. kad su se sve pčele vratile sa paše, prvo sam ih zadimio običnim dimom da bi napunile medni mehur medom, istegnu zadak i otvore prostore izmedju hitinskih prstenova kako bi bolje i efikasnije delovao lek. Zatim sam tretirao sa APIACARIDIMOM, ne 2 po 2 dima iz dimilice, nego mlazom dima, jer posedujem električnu dimilicu sa ventilatorom gde se drveni ugalj jako razgori, stvori veliku temperaturu i ne prestoji opasnost da će ostati Ugljen monoksid koji je jak otrov za ljude i pčele, koj može, ukoliko drveni ugalj potpuno ne sagori da ima teške posledice na pčelama. Pored ove dve ,,matorke“ tretirao sam i nastavak (Izolator) koji je imao 8 ramova zatvorenog legla i nesto pčela kako sam napred izneo.
            Rezultat dimljeja je sledeci: U one dve ,,matorke,, sa po dva sprata, po mojoj slobodnoj proceni palo je oko 3-5% Varoe, a u IZOLATORU skoro ništa. Sutradan, l8 avgusta 83 god. tretirao sam još jednom, ali mogu da kažem da je palo neznatan broj kod matorki.
         Od 18 avgusta počeo sam stimulativno da prihranjujem ,,matorke,, svaki dan po 300 – 400 g. sirupom u razmeri
1 : 1. Tada sam izvadio krajnje ramove u oba nastavaka. Taj prostor mi je bio potreban da razmaknem ramove kod tretiranja, a zatim da stavim ram hranilicu sa pogacom, što je garancija da ce mlada julska matica vrlo uspesno nastavti sa nosenjem jaja. Po literaturi matica od 16 avgusta do 6 septembra polaže oko 450 jaja dnevno, a od 6 septembra do 27 septembra oko 83 jaja, što ne sumnjam de ce mlada julska matica tu brojku povećati ako joj se obezbede optimalnl uslovi, a ja sam ih obezbedio. Kada sam 24 avgusta 83 god. trebao da odem u Budimpeštu na Kongres Apimondsije, 23.08.83 god. tretirao sam samo onu kosnicu, odnosno onaj nastavak (IZOLATOR) gde su mlade pčele uveliko počele izlaziti iz zatvorenog legla i imao sam šta da vidim. Varroe je palo isto onoliko koliko i prethodni put kod ,,matorki,, Da napomenem kad sam 17.08.83 pogledao u trutovskim celijama kojih je bilo vrlo malo,  dali ima Varroe, u nekima je bilo i po 5-6 Varroe u jednoj celiji.
        Dok sam bio otsutan od 24.08.89 do 02.09.83 god. zadužio sam saradnike da nastave sa prihranjivanjem ,,matorki,,. Kada sam se vratio 3 septembra još jednom sam tretirao IZOLATOR i palo je toliko Varroe, kao i prethodni put. Posto nije vise bilo zatvorenog legla, tretirao sam ga i sledeceg dana 4.09.83 god., ali Varroe nije bilo. U IZOLATORU na podnjaći i ispred izolatora je bilo svakakvih pčela i bez krila i bez nogu i sa drugim deformacijama. Sl. 8.
         Sl. 9                                         Sl. 9 A                          S. 9 B
Ostale mlade i zdrave pčele sledećeg dana vratio sam dvema MATORKAMA – košnici od kojih sam izvadio zatvoreno leglo za IZOLATOR u vidu trensfuzije na poklopnoj dasci ispred leta. (Sl. 9, 9A, 9B) Kada sam 06.09.83 god. pregledao,,matorke,, svaka je imala na 6 ramova legla. Sledeći pregled bio je 19 novembra 83 god. i legla vise nije bilo. Tretirao sam ih još jednom ali Varroe bilo vrlo malo, što smatram da sam tretiranjem smanjio na najnizu mogucu meru. Tim datumom sam i završio sa uzlmljavanjem. Po mojoj slobodnoj proceni medne rezerve je bilo izmedju 15 i 18 kgr., a pčele su pokrivale po 8 ulica.
     Ovde mozemo izvuci zak­ljučak, da bez obzira što se oduzelo zatvoreno leglo i leglo pre zatvaranja od MATORKI, (ako to na vreme uredimo) nije uticalo bitno na jačinu drustva preko zime i u proleće.
      U prolece 15 maja 84 god. umesto ram hranilice stavio sam gradjevnjak i treći nastavak. Gradjevnjake sam prekontro1isao 16 juna 84 g. i u 500 trutovskih ce1ija našao: u prvoj 18, a u dugoj 12 Varroa, što sam zaključio da u leglu ima: u prvoj 3,6%, a u drugoj 2,4% zarazenosti sa Varroom, što sam smatrao de nemoze stetiti drustvu, pa nisam preduzimao druge mere zaštite. Kada sam 04.08.84 god. došao da izvadim med, od prve sam izvadio 16, a od druge 17 punih remova sa medom i izvrcao 60 kgr. mada, ćime sam zadovoljan, jer se radi o stacioniranim kosnicama koje su veoma udalje­ne od mog mesta stanovanja. (Skopje-Makedonija – Maradik-Vojvodina, odnosno na padinama Fruške Gore)
      Ovde možemo izvući još jedan zaključak, a to je da pomenuti postupak nije bitno uticao na prinosu meda. Kada pišem ovaj reterat, a to je 6 avgust 1984 god. dolazim još do jed­nog zaključka, a to je, da je zaraženost u odnosu na prošlu godinu mnogo manja, pa sam mišljenja, da ovakav pomenutl postupak može da se izvodi svake druge godine.
  Delegacija iz Makedonije      Slušaoci simpozija                     Zahvalnost Dr Sulimanoviću
NA KRAJU MOJ ZAKLJUČAK BI BIO:
 
1. U avgustu mesecu tačnije od 01 do 15 avgusta uraditi metodu kako sam je napred izneo jednput godisnje ili jednom u dve godine.
2. Novembra meseca, kada nema legla ako se prednja radnja radi svake godine, jedno tretiranje, a ako se radi  jednom u dve godine, onda u onoj godini kada se ne radi ova TEHNOLOŠKO – BIOLOŠKA metoda, u istom periodu od 1 – 15 avgusta, potrebno je trokratno valjano tretiranje sa jednim od registriranih lekova, odnosno HEMISKA metoda.
3. Prolece, maj mesec, staviti gradjevnjak radi kontrole-dijagnostike Varroe u trutovskim ćelijama, pa ako je potrebno, treba se boriti i tom metodom, odnosno isecanjem trutovskog legla.
                                                                    II
Drugo što bi zeleo de kažem, kako sam napred najavio, a osecam se i obaveznim kao farmaceut da upoznam pcelare sa dva osnovna principa u Farmaceutskoj sluzbi o korišcenju lekova. Mi pcelari, koji smo se suocili sa istinom da cemo u buducem našem radu sve cesće koristiti lekove, moracemo nesto vise procitati i saznati o tim principima a to su:
1. Postupnost davanja leka t.j. davanje leka od slabibjeg ka jacim.
2. Pravilnost davanja leka, sto znaci da svaki lek dat u propisanoj dozi deluje kao lek, a u suprotnom kao otrov ili uopste ne deluje, zavisno od čuvanje leka, roka trajanja i sl. Bas upravo nepoznavanjuci ova dva principa puno pcelara cak i vrsnih imali ogromne gubitke i štete. Ja se ne slazem sa pcelarima koji koriste vise lekova u jednoj godini, odnosno u jednom ciklusu tretiranja. Neki pčeleri idu toliko daleko da u jednom tretiranju stavljaju u dimilicu 2, 3 i vise lekova, ne svaćajući posledice koje mogu proizaci od takvog rada, a posledice su sledece:
1. Brza rezistentnost parazita, odnosno otpornost parazita prema odredjenom leku i u nedostatku novih i efikasnijih lekova sam se osudjuje na propast.
2. Poznata je netrpelivost lekova jedan sa drugim, pa sagorevanjem ili mesanjem dobja se novi kvalitet koji može – biti otrovan, ili se lekovi medjusobo nautralisu pa delovanje je svedeno na minimum.
Rukovodilac Vojnog pčelinjaka San. major Naum Bandžov V.P. 5573 Skopje

Engleska verzija referata  SOME EXPERIENCES IN SUPPRESSION VARROE IN LR BEE HIVES

Sanitary major, BANDZOV NAUM, V.P.5573 Skopje

Hopping to make useful mu experiences gained in the cours of my 20 years work with LR bee hives, I decided to take part in the III rd International Symposium and deliver these modest experiences to those beekeepers who have also serious problems with Varroe. I wish this presentation would leave a certain trace and would be of a great use to the beekeepers in their future work.Now I am going to present you one of my experiments made last yar which was based on scientific sources and has showed excellent results this year. As a pharmacist I should like also to offer you my opinions of the remedies used in suppression the Varroe.My successful experience of beekeeping has been a result of my long patient work in this field and reading professional journals. In the future I shall have more time and opportunities, as a director of the military beehive, to make experiments, researches and prove some scientific knowledges from this field. Therefore I offer cooperation to all scientific insti­tuts and faoulties throughout Yugoslavia who are in some way occupied with beekeeping.The experiment which I have made on two bee hives and which I shall use it for suppression Varroe in the future, is a result of my conversation with Dr Jovan Kulinchevich who advised me that the Chinese beekeepers successfully strive against Varroe with cuting off the last brood. Afterwards I have something modificated, and adopted it to LR bee hives. Therefore I can say that this experiment proved a great effectiveness.From two beehives, so called matorke, which finished the­season of the 17 th of August,1983,with 3 additions, I took out the frames with clesed brood and half closed brood where I thought there was a great number of Varroe and put them in another bee hive. I added to this frame with brood some bees from onother beehive to help the bees come out from the brood in the following 15 days. I left 19 frames in each of these two matorke. Two frames were with eggs and opened brood but without Varroe in thew. Also I left 17 frames with some quantity of honey, pollen and several empty frames where the yourg qween bee can continue undisturbed to lay eggs (1 change the queen bee every July).The same day, on the 17 th od August 1983, before the night fall, after all the bees had returned from the pasture, I filled the bee hives with comon smoke so they could fill the honey bublles with honey, stetch out the back and open the spaces between the hitins rings so that the remedy could be more effective. After that I treated them with a stream of smoke made of Apiacaridim /not 2×2 smokes/ because I am in a possession of an electric smoke machine with a ventilator where the charcoal begins to burn so easily, produce high temperature and do not leave coal monoxide which is a strong poisonous gas. If the charcoal does not burn out complet­ ly it will have serious consequenses on the bees. Besides these two matorke I treated the extension­ with 8 frames filled with brood and small number of bees. The result of this treatment is as following. In the two matorke each with two storries I noticed that about 3-5% of Varroe have fallen off. As concern to the ad­dition I did not notice anything.The next day, on the 18 th of August 1983, I repeated the treatment once more in the matorke but a small number of Varroe has fallen off. Startingfrom the 18 th of August I began to feed the matorke every with 300-400 gr. of sugar syrup 1:1.Instead of the 2 oth frame /7 needed a place to move apart the frames during the treatment/ put a frame with a sugar pie which gives guarantee taat the young queen bee will continue successfully with laying eggs.According to the literature the queen bee lays about 450 eggs every day from the 16 heof August till the 6 th of September but from the 6 th of September till 27 th of September lays about 83 eggs. To my opinion the young queen bee can lay more eggs if it is supplied with optimal condition for that.Before I had to go attend the Congress apimondija in Budapest on the 24 th of September 1983, I had treated only that bee hive from which extension the yourg bees could come out from the closed brood. I noticed that the same quantity of Varroe had fallen offas it had in the two matorke before (When I looked at the drone cells to see if there was Varroe I could find about 5 – 6 Varroe in every cell). During my absence, from the 24 th of August 1983, till the 2 nd of September 1983, I obligated somebody to continue with feeding the twe matorke. When I came back on the 3 rd of September once more I treated the extension and noticed that the same number of Varroe has fallen off as the previous time. Because there was not any more closed brood in the bee hive. I treated also the extension the next day, on the 4 th of September 1983, bnt there was not any Varroe. In this extension there could be found every kind of bees without wings, without legs and with some other deformities which I returned the next day to that bee hive from which I took it out. To this bee hive I added the bees from the matorke on the 6 th of September1983, I noticed that there was brood on six frames in them.Neht checking was on Novemher 19, 1983. There were no nests.I treated them once more, but Varroe was a few.I think that with such treatment i reduced it to the lowest limit. With this date I concluded the wintering. According to my free calculations, the honey reserves were between 15 and 18 kilos, and the bees were covering 8 lanes each. We can draw a conclusion that, although we reduced a covered nest before its closing from one beehive (if we do it on time) it can not influence effectivelly on the compactness of the bee society in winter and in spring. In spring, on May 15, 1984, instead of the frame, the bee-workers were given building material and the third appendix. I controlled the building material on June 16,1984, and in 500 cells of drones I found 18 in the first, 12 Varroa in the second. I concluded that in the nest i have 3,6% in the first, 2,4% in the second of the infection and i think that it can not affect to the society, and I haven’t done anything else. On August 4, 1984, I came to take honey. From the first I took 16, from the second 17 full frames with honey and 60 kilos honey. I am satisfied because I dealed with stationary beehives which are on a great distance from my home. We can draw one more conclusion. This method didn’t effectivelly influenced on honey harvest.When I write this paper, on August 26, 1984, I can show one conclusion more. The infectioon is less than last year’s. I think that this kind of method can be applied every second year.

At the end, my conlusion is as follows:1) In August, more precisely, from August 15, to apply the above described method, once a year or once in two years.2) In November, when there are no nests, if we apply this method each year, one tretament, or if we apply it once in two years, then it can ve done in the year when this method isn’t performed, with triple treat ment with some medicaments.3) In spring, in May, to put building material for checking, and if it is neccessery, to fight vlith this method by cutting of the drone nest.

II

I’d like to state and I announced it before, and I feel as my duty as pharmacist to inform the beekeeepers about two fundamental princip les about the usage of medicaments. The  beekeeperes who accepted the fact that the medicaments will be included in their work,   must read more and must realize the principles as follows:

l)The graduality of medicament applying – from weaker to stronger.

2)The right usage of medicaments, because it can serve as poison or it can not affect because of ill storage. If we do not recognize these two principles, a lot of beekeepers suffered great losses.I do not aqree with some beekeepers who use more medicaments in a year, e.g., in one treatment cycle.

Some beekeepers put 2, 3, and more medicaments in one chimney tax. They cannot see the consequences of their fault. The consequences are as follow:

1) Quick resistence of the parasites, e.g., the resistence of the parasite to such medicaments, and in a lack of new and more effective medicaments they doom themselves to disaster.

2) It is known that some medicaments can not stand together, that if they mix together can produce a poison, or they neutralise each other and the efficiency is at minimum.